What is reviewed and improved upon in substantive document editing?
- Is the title informative, concise, and under
12 words long?
- Does the title convey the exact nature of
- Was the title considered after the entire
research manuscript was developed?
- Does the abstract follow a logical structure?
- Does the abstract appropriately summarize
the purpose, methodology, results, and
- Is there a statement of where and why?
- Is the scope of the work clearly indicated?
- Does the introduction only discuss
literature that is pertinent to the research
- Is the methodology described in such a
way that it can be reproduced by other
- Are the measurement procedures present
and is their discussion limited to that which
directly affects the results?
- Have statistical measures of significance
been applied, and are their explanations
- Are statements of sensitivity, specificity,
accuracy, probability, or correlation clear?
- Are the methods presented in past tense?
- Are the findings relevant to the research?
- Can the results be better depicted in
tables, graphs, or figures?
- Are the results presented in past tense?
Figures and Tables
- Are all key results discussed in light of the
presented hypotheses, and is the
- Are the conclusions clear?
- Are there generalizations that cannot be
- Are there any blatant errors in reasoning?
- Do the figures and tables add to the
- Are the figures and tables cited in the
- Does the visual presentation need
- Are the legends appropriately labeled and
- Are all symbols, terms, and abbreviations
explained in the notes?
- Are all statements of fact appropriately
- Are all references cited, and all citations
presented in the reference list?
- Do all transitions between paragraphs flow?
- Is the tone and voice appropriate?
- Is there repetition within paragraphs?
- Is there structural and language
parallelism between paragraphs, especially
in papers with multiple authors?
Words and Phrases
- Do the sentences clearly and
unambiguously present intended meaning?
- Do sentences flow smoothly together?
- Is each sentence grammatically correct?
Grammar, Punctuation, Spelling
- Have superfluous and redundant words
- Have clichés and jargon been eliminated?
- Do all subject agree with the verbs?
- Is proper tense being used for the
- Have the definite article (the), indefinite
article (a, an), and no article been used
- Are prepositions used correctly?
- Are commas, semi-colons, colons, em
dashes, en dashes, hyphens, quotation
marks, periods, and parentheses used
- Is there too much punctuation within one
sentence, making it difficult to follow, or
would additional punctuation facilitate
better sentence comprehension?
- Is the manuscript free from spelling and
- Are the terms being used valid or have
they been newly coined?
- Are newly coined terms the best
descriptors of the construct
- Are the appropriate units of measurement
- Are the appropriate symbols and variables
- Does capitalization follow conventions of
the subject area?
- Has either American English (AE) or British
English (BE) been used consistently?
- Have all abbreviations been correctly
defined and identified?
- Is the number style consistent with the
- Is hyphenation used consistently and
- Is spacing consistent throughout the text?
- Have all changes been applied
- Have all APA Style formatting guidelines
been followed, or has the formatting
guidelines of a specific journal been
- Is the length of the paper within the
expectations of the journal? If not, have
proper reductions been made, or have
reductions been suggested to the author?
- Are any of the required sections missing?
- Are the references listed in the sequence
specified by the journal or by APA Style?
- Are all parts of each reference added, and
are they accurate?
- Is the page setup, heading style,
paragraph spacing, and indentation
consistent with APA Style or with the
Format and Style Review