What is reviewed and improved upon in substantive document editing?
  • Is the title informative, concise, and under
    12 words long?
  • Does the title convey the exact nature of
    the research?
  • Was the title considered after the entire
    research manuscript was developed?
  • Does the abstract follow a logical structure?
  • Does the abstract appropriately summarize
    the purpose, methodology, results, and
  • Is there a statement of where and why?
  • Is the scope of the work clearly indicated?
  • Does the introduction only discuss
    literature that is pertinent to the research
    at hand?
  • Is the methodology described in such a
    way that it can be reproduced by other
  • Are the measurement procedures present
    and is their discussion limited to that which
    directly affects the results?
  • Have statistical measures of significance
    been applied, and are their explanations
  • Are statements of sensitivity, specificity,
    accuracy, probability, or correlation clear?
  • Are the methods presented in past tense?
  • Are the findings relevant to the research?
  • Can the results be better depicted in
    tables, graphs, or figures?
  • Are the results presented in past tense?
  • Are all key results discussed in light of the
    presented hypotheses, and is the
    presentation convincing?
  • Are the conclusions clear?
  • Are there generalizations that cannot be
  • Are there any blatant errors in reasoning?
Figures and Tables
  • Do the figures and tables add to the
  • Are the figures and tables cited in the
  • Does the visual presentation need
  • Are the legends appropriately labeled and
  • Are all symbols, terms, and abbreviations
    explained in the notes?
Literature Review
  • Are all statements of fact appropriately
  • Are all references cited, and all citations
    presented in the reference list?
  • Do all transitions between paragraphs flow?
  • Is the tone and voice appropriate?
  • Is there repetition within paragraphs?
  • Is there structural and language
    parallelism between paragraphs, especially
    in papers with multiple authors?
  • Do the sentences clearly and
    unambiguously present intended meaning?
  • Do sentences flow smoothly together?
  • Is each sentence grammatically correct?
Words and Phrases
  • Have superfluous and redundant words
    been deleted?
  • Have clichés and jargon been eliminated?
Grammar, Punctuation, Spelling
  • Do all subject agree with the verbs?
  • Is proper tense being used for the
    appropriate section?
  • Have the definite article (the), indefinite
    article (a, an), and no article been used
  • Are prepositions used correctly?
  • Are commas, semi-colons, colons, em
    dashes, en dashes, hyphens, quotation
    marks, periods, and parentheses used
  • Is there too much punctuation within one
    sentence, making it difficult to follow, or
    would additional punctuation facilitate
    better sentence comprehension?
  • Is the manuscript free from spelling and
    typographical errors?
  • Are the terms being used valid or have
    they been newly coined?
  • Are newly coined terms the best
    descriptors of the construct
  • Are the appropriate units of measurement
    being used?
  • Are the appropriate symbols and variables
    being used?
  • Does capitalization follow conventions of
    the subject area?
  • Has either American English (AE) or British
    English (BE) been used consistently?
  • Have all abbreviations been correctly
    defined and identified?
  • Is the number style consistent with the
    subject area?
  • Is hyphenation used consistently and
  • Is spacing consistent throughout the text?
  • Have all changes been applied
  • Have all APA Style formatting guidelines
    been followed, or has the formatting
    guidelines of a specific journal been
  • Is the length of the paper within the
    expectations of the journal? If not, have
    proper reductions been made, or have
    reductions been suggested to the author?
  • Are any of the required sections missing?
  • Are the references listed in the sequence
    specified by the journal or by APA Style?
  • Are all parts of each reference added, and
    are they accurate?
  • Is the page setup, heading style,
    paragraph spacing, and indentation
    consistent with APA Style or with the
    journal's style?
Content Review
Language Review
Format and Style Review